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The Governor's power was progressively diminished by Acts of of the British Parliament that expanded the Legislative Council and created an Executive Council. In 1801–02 Matthew Flinders in The Investigator lead the first circumnavigation of Australia. On 1 January 1901, following a proclamation by Queen Victoria, New South Wales ceased to be a self-governing colony and became a state of the Commonwealth of Australia. It was not formally constituted as a Crown Colony until 11 August 1824..
When the draft was put to referendum in New South Wales in 1899, Reid (Free Trade Premier from 1894 to 1899), adopted an equivocal position, earning him the nickname "Yes-No Reid." Federation was followed by the imposition of protective tariffs just as the Sydney Free Traders had feared, and this boosted domestic manufacturing. New Zealand, originally part of the colony of New South Wales, became a separate Colony of New Zealand on 1 July 1841. The ships arrived at Botany Bay on January 20th 1788. The Snowy Mountains Scheme began construction in the state's south.
, Phillip sent exploratory missions in search of better soils and fixed on the Parramatta region as a promising area for expansion and moved many of the convicts from late 1788 to establish a small township, which became the main centre of the colony's economic life, leaving Sydney Cove as an important port and focus of social life. Rivalry between New South Wales and Victoria was intense throughout the second half of the 19th century, and the two colonies developed in radically different directions. This contributed to the defeat of the Chifley government at the 1949 elections and the beginning of the long rule at a Federal level of Robert Menzies, a politician from Victoria, of the newly founded Liberal Party of Australia. The building was from a design by Jørn Utzon. A camp was established in Australia and the Union Jack was raised on January 26th 1788 at Sydney-Cove, Port Jackson. Gradually after 1788 New South Wales was subdivided. Already many small towns in western New South Wales have lost so many services and businesses that they are no longer viable, causing population to consolidate in regional centres like Dubbo and Wagga Wagga. That same year Van Diemen's Land (now known as Tasmania) separated from the Colony of New South Wales. A public meeting was held in 1851 to consider Queensland's proposed separation from New South Wales. At the time of federation the New South Wales economy was still heavily based on agriculture, particularly wool growing, although mining—coal from the Hunter Region and silver, lead and zinc from Broken Hill—was also important. , The First Fleet of 11 vessels carried over a thousand settlers, including 778 convicts (192 women and 586 men). In 1855 New South Wales attained self-governance with the British Parliament granting New South Wales its own constitution. In 1770 Lieutenant (later Captain) James Cook, in command of HMS Endeavour, sailed along the east coast of Australia, becoming the first known Europeans to do so. The reformist attorney general, John Plunkett, sought to apply Enlightenment principles to governance in the colony, pursuing the establishment of equality before the law, first by extending jury rights to emancipists, then by extending legal protections to convicts, assigned servants and Aborigines. The District of Moreton Bay became the Colony of Queensland in 1859. This is considered the only fighting within New South Wales of the war. Brisbane was named as the capital city. The main Japanese naval advance towards Australian territory was however halted with the assistance of the United States Navy, in May 1942, at the Battle of the Coral Sea. A further boost to both manufacturing and farming came from the increased demand during World War I. The Bigge reports changed the way New South Wales was administered. But Labor came to grief in New South Wales as elsewhere during World War I, when the Premier, William Holman, supported the Labor Prime Minister Billy Hughes in his drive to introduce conscription. It began in January 1788 as a small settlement of some 1,000 people clustered around the foreshores of Sydney Harbour, near what is now the city of Sydney. For the first time in the colony’s history the governor did not have absolute power.
The region developed into present-day Sydney. His efforts were in vain. Victoria became the Australian stronghold of protectionism, liberalism and radicalism. Opinion in New South Wales about federation remained divided through the 1890s. A celebrated literary debate played out on the pages of the Bulletin about the nature of life in the Australian bush featuring the conflicting views of such as Paterson (called romantic) and Lawson (who saw bush life as exceedingly harsh) and notions of an Australian 'national character' were taking firmer root. This page was last modified on 21 October 2020, at 21:17.
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