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blackletter history

1 lượt xem 25/10/2020

[3]. Round Hand is a type of handwriting and calligraphy originating in England in the 1660s primarily by the writing masters John Ayres and William Banson. Textualis was first used in the 13th and 14th centuries, and subsequently become more elaborate and decorated, as well as being reserved used for liturgical works only. A more angular form of bastarda was used in Burgundy, the lettre de forme or lettre bourgouignonne, for books of hours such as the Très Riches Heures of John, Duke of Berry. Bastarda, the "hybrid" mixture of cursiva and textualis, developed in the 15th century and was used for vernacular texts as well as Latin. Italian blackletter also is known as rotunda, as it was less angular than those produced by northern printing centers. Fraktur is a notable script of this type, and sometimes the entire group of blackletter faces is incorrectly referred to as Fraktur. Italian cursive developed in the 13th century from scripts used by notaries. the letters ⟨g⟩, ⟨j⟩, ⟨p⟩, ⟨q⟩, ⟨y⟩, and the hook of ⟨h⟩ have descenders, but no other letters are written below the line.

Characteristics of Fraktur are: Here is the entire alphabet in Fraktur (minus the long s and the sharp s ⟨ß⟩), using the AMS Euler Fraktur typeface: ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ{\displaystyle {\mathfrak {A}}{\mathfrak {B}}{\mathfrak {C}}{\mathfrak {D}}{\mathfrak {E}}{\mathfrak {F}}{\mathfrak {G}}{\mathfrak {H}}{\mathfrak {I}}{\mathfrak {J}}{\mathfrak {K}}{\mathfrak {L}}{\mathfrak {M}}{\mathfrak {N}}{\mathfrak {O}}{\mathfrak {P}}{\mathfrak {Q}}{\mathfrak {R}}{\mathfrak {S}}{\mathfrak {T}}{\mathfrak {U}}{\mathfrak {V}}{\mathfrak {W}}{\mathfrak {X}}{\mathfrak {Y}}{\mathfrak {Z}}}, abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{\displaystyle {\mathfrak {a}}{\mathfrak {b}}{\mathfrak {c}}{\mathfrak {d}}{\mathfrak {e}}{\mathfrak {f}}{\mathfrak {g}}{\mathfrak {h}}{\mathfrak {i}}{\mathfrak {j}}{\mathfrak {k}}{\mathfrak {l}}{\mathfrak {m}}{\mathfrak {n}}{\mathfrak {o}}{\mathfrak {p}}{\mathfrak {q}}{\mathfrak {r}}{\mathfrak {s}}{\mathfrak {t}}{\mathfrak {u}}{\mathfrak {v}}{\mathfrak {w}}{\mathfrak {x}}{\mathfrak {y}}{\mathfrak {z}}}. When using that method, blackletter ligatures like ⟨ch⟩, ⟨ck⟩, ⟨tz⟩ or ⟨ſt⟩ remain together without additional letterspacing (⟨ſt⟩ is dissolved, though). The character names use "Fraktur" for the mathematical alphanumeric symbols, while "blackletter" is used for those symbol characters in the letterlike symbols range. English forms of blackletter have been studied extensively and may be divided into many categories. Hybrida is also called bastarda (especially in France), and as its name suggests, is a hybrid form of the script. n It appeared in France at the end of the 16th century, growing out from a late local variant of Gothic cursive influenced by N. Italian Renaissance types in Rotunda, a bookish round Gothic style, as well as Civilité, also a late French variant of Gothic cursive. Not only were blackletter forms called Gothic script, but any other seemingly barbarian script was also labeled "Gothic". U Schwabacher typesetting was the most common typeface in Germany, until it was replaced by Fraktur from the mid 16th century onwards. The earliest cursive blackletter form is Anglicana, a very round and looped script, which also had a squarer and angular counterpart, Anglicana formata. r H Secretary script has a somewhat haphazard appearance, and its forms of the letters ⟨a⟩, ⟨g⟩, ⟨r⟩ and ⟨s⟩ are unique, unlike any forms in any other English script. d According to Dutch scholar Gerard Lieftinck, the pinnacle of blackletter use occurred in the 14th and 15th centuries. The Antiqua–Fraktur dispute was a typographical dispute in 19th- and early 20th-century Germany.

Words from other languages, especially from Romance languages including Latin, are usually typeset in antiqua instead of blackletter. The blackletter lines are broken up; that is, their forms contain many angles when compared to the curves of the Antiqua (common) typefaces modeled after antique Roman square capitals and Carolingian minuscule.

Characteristics of Schwabacher are: Fraktur is a form of blackletter that became the most common German blackletter typeface by the mid-16th century.

Cursiva refers to a very large variety of forms of blackletter; as with modern cursive writing, there is no real standard form. A more angular form of bastarda was used in Burgundy, the lettre de forme or lettre bourgouignonne, for books of hours such as the Très Riches Heures of John, Duke of Berry. It was large and wide and took up a lot of space on a manuscript in a time when writing materials were very costly. As early as the 11th century, different forms of Carolingian were already being used, and by the mid-12th century, a clearly distinguishable form, able to be written more quickly to meet the demand for new books,[ citation needed ] was being used in northeastern France and the Low Countries. Blackletter is sometimes referred to as Old English, but it is not to be confused with the Old English language (or Anglo-Saxon), which predates blackletter by many centuries and was written in the insular script or in Futhorc. English cursiva began to be used in the 13th century, and soon replaced littera oxoniensis as the standard university script. Mathematical blackletter characters are separately encoded in Unicode in the Mathematical alphanumeric symbols range at U+1D504-1D537 and U+1D56C-1D59F (bold), except for individual letters already encoded in the Letterlike Symbols range (plus long s at U+017F). "Black letter" redirects here.

When using that method, blackletter ligatures like ⟨ch⟩, ⟨ck⟩, ⟨tz⟩ or ⟨ſt⟩ remain together without additional letterspacing (⟨ſt⟩ is dissolved, though).

Visigothic script was a type of medieval script that originated in the Visigothic kingdom in Hispania.

Fraktur is a calligraphic hand of the Latin alphabet and any of several blackletter typefaces derived from this hand. Noticeable in the blackletter typeface is its dramatic thick and thin strokes and sometimes elaborate swirls. {\displaystyle {\mathfrak {a}}{\mathfrak {b}}{\mathfrak {c}}{\mathfrak {d}}{\mathfrak {e}}{\mathfrak {f}}{\mathfrak {g}}{\mathfrak {h}}{\mathfrak {i}}{\mathfrak {j}}{\mathfrak {k}}{\mathfrak {l}}{\mathfrak {m}}{\mathfrak {n}}{\mathfrak {o}}{\mathfrak {p}}{\mathfrak {q}}{\mathfrak {r}}{\mathfrak {s}}{\mathfrak {t}}{\mathfrak {u}}{\mathfrak {v}}{\mathfrak {w}}{\mathfrak {x}}{\mathfrak {y}}{\mathfrak {z}}}. Not only were blackletter forms called Gothic script, but any other seemingly barbarian script, such as Visigothic, Beneventan, and Merovingian, were also labeled Gothic.

Fonts such as Gutenberg and Fraktur are popular modern interpretations of the first print typefaces. Mathematical blackletter characters are separately encoded in Unicode in the Mathematical alphanumeric symbols range at U+1D504-1D537 and U+1D56C-1D59F (bold), except for individual letters already encoded in the Letterlike Symbols range (plus long s at U+017F).
As early as the 11th century, different forms of Carolingian were already being used, and by the mid-12th century, a clearly distinguishable form, able to be written more quickly to meet the demand for new books,[citation needed] was being used in northeastern France and the Low Countries. It developed in the 14th century as a simplified form of textualis, with influence from the form of textualis as used for writing charters. Letter shapes in printing were copied from letter shapes in a style of handwriting. g

Also Gothic script has nothing to do with the Goths.

Lieftinck also divided cursiva into three styles: littera cursiva formata was the most legible and calligraphic style. Textualis, also known as textura or Gothic bookhand, was the most calligraphic form of blackletter, and today is the form most associated with "Gothic". Antiqua is a style of typeface used to mimic styles of handwriting or calligraphy common during the 15th and 16th centuries.

[citation needed] Its large size consumed a lot of manuscript space in a time when writing materials were very costly. The small letter ⟨g⟩ has a horizontal stroke at its top that forms crosses with the two downward strokes.

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